Resources

Endowed Lectureships at the University of Louisville, Freely viewable at iTunes University (by the Interdisciplinary Master of Arts in Bioethics and Medical Humanities):

Gheens Foundation Humanism in Medicine Lectureship

Presentations given as a part of the Gheens Foundation Visiting Scholar in Humanism in Medicine at the University of Louisville. This series covers a wide variety of topics in an interdisciplinary exploration of medicine through philosophy, law, art, sociology and more.

James L. Stambaugh, Jr. Humanities in Medicine Lectureship

Presentations given as a part of the James L. Stambaugh, Jr. Humanities in Medicine lectures at the University of Louisville. This series covers a wide variety of topics in an interdisciplinary exploration with a focus on how humanities can impact and enrich medical education and care giving.

Samuel H. Cheng Medical Ethics Lectureship

Presentations given as a part of the Samuel H. Cheng Lectureship in Medical Ethics Series at the University of Louisville. These lectures cover a wide variety of topics in an interdisciplinary exploration with a focus on medical ethics in practice and education.

RELEVANT GUIDANCE AND ACCREDITATION STANDARDS ON PROFESSIONALISM IN UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEDICAL ETHICS & HUMANITIES

Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice

Report I, Learning Objectives for Medical Student Education-Guidelines for Medical Schools, AAMC, 1998.

"Physicians must be altruistic. Physicians must be compassionate and empathetic in caring for patients, and must be trustworthy and truthful in all of their professional dealings. They must bring to the study and practice of medicine those character traits, attitudes, and values that underpin ethical and beneficent medical care. They must understand the history of medicine, the nature of medicine's social compact, the ethical precepts of the medical profession, and their obligations under law. At all times they must act with integrity, honesty, respect for patients' privacy, and respect for the dignity of patients as persons. In all of their interactions with patients they must seek to understand the meaning of the patients' stories in the context of the patients' beliefs, and family and cultural values. They must avoid being judgmental when the patients' beliefs and values conflict with their own. They must continue to care for dying patients even when disease-specific therapy is no longer available or desired."

"For its part the medical school must ensure that before graduation a student will have demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the faculty, the following:

Knowledge of the theories and principles that govern ethical decision making, and of the major ethical dilemmas in medicine, particularly those that arise at the beginning and end of life and those that arise from the rapid expansion of knowledge of genetics

Compassionate treatment of patients, and respect for their privacy and dignity

Honesty and integrity in all interactions with patients' families, colleagues, and others with whom physicians must interact in their professional lives."

From: Association of American Medical Colleges, Learning Objectives for Medical Student Education: Guidelines for Medical Schools, 1998, (https://www.aamc.org/initiatives/msop), Accessed August 30, 2011.

Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME):

ED-23 A medical education program must include instruction in medical ethics and human values and require its medical students to exhibit scrupulous ethical principles in caring for patients and in relating to patients’ families and to others involved in patient care. The medical education program should ensure that medical students receive instruction in appropriate medical ethics, human values, and communication skills before engaging in patient care activities. As students take on increasingly more active roles in patient care during their progression through the curriculum, adherence to ethical principles should be observed, assessed, and reinforced through formal instructional efforts. . . . . "Scrupulous ethical principles" implies characteristics that include honesty, integrity, maintenance of confidentiality, and respect for patients, patients’ families, other students, and other health professionals.

MS-31-A A medical education program must ensure that its learning environment promotes the development of explicit and appropriate professional attributes in its medical students (i.e., attitudes, behaviors, and identity). The medical education program, including its faculty, staff, medical students, residents, and affiliated instructional sites, shares responsibility for creating an appropriate learning environment. The learning environment includes both formal learning activities and the attitudes, values, and informal “lessons” conveyed by individuals who interact with the medical student. . . .

It is expected that a medical education program will define the professional attributes it wishes its medical students to develop in the context of the program’s mission and the community in which it operates. Such attributes should also be promulgated to the faculty and staff of the medical education program. As part of their formal training, medical students should learn the importance of demonstrating the attributes of a professional and understand the balance of privileges and obligations that the public and the profession expect of a physician. . . . The medical education program and its faculty, staff, medical students, and residents should also regularly evaluate the learning environment to identify positive and negative influences on the maintenance of professional standards and conduct and develop appropriate strategies to enhance the positive and mitigate the negative influences. The program should have suitable mechanisms available to identify and promptly correct recurring violations of professional standards.

From Liaison Committee on Medical Education. Accreditation Standards. (http://www.lcme.org/standard.htm). Revised May 2011. Accessed August 30, 2011.

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)

Professionalism grounds and justifies the six core competencies: Patient Care, Practice-Based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills, Professionalism, Systems-Based Practice:

Common Program Requirements: General Competencies Approved by the ACGME Board February 13, 2007

ACGME Competencies

The program must integrate the following ACGME competencies into the curriculum:

1. Patient Care
Residents must be able to provide patient care that is compassionate, appropriate, and effective for the treatment of health problems and the promotion of health. Residents are expected to:
[as further specified by the RC* -- For additional description or language for Patient Care and Medical Knowledge, please reference the specialty-specific program requirements under the Educational Program header.]

2. Medical Knowledge
Residents must demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. Residents are expected to:
[as further specified by the RC*]

3. Practice-based Learning and Improvement
Residents must demonstrate the ability to investigate and evaluate their care of patients, to appraise and assimilate scientific evidence, and to continuously improve patient care based on constant self-evaluation and life-long learning. Residents are expected to develop skills and habits to be able to meet the following goals:

  • identify strengths, deficiencies, and limits in one's knowledge and expertise;
  • set learning and improvement goals;
  • identify and perform appropriate learning activities;
  • systematically analyze practice using quality improvement methods, and implement changes with the goal of practice improvement;
  • incorporate formative evaluation feedback into daily practice;
  • locate, appraise, and assimilate evidence from scientific studies related to their patients' health problems;
  • use information technology to optimize learning; and,
  • to participate in the education of patients, families, students, residents and other health professionals. [as further specified by the RC*]

4. Interpersonal and Communication Skills
Residents must demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in the effective exchange of information and collaboration with patients, their families, and health professionals. Residents are expected to:
communicate effectively with patients, families, and the public, as appropriate, across a broad range of socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds;
communicate effectively with physicians, other health professionals, and health related agencies;
work effectively as a member or leader of a health care team or other professional group;
act in a consultative role to other physicians and health professionals; and, o maintain comprehensive, timely, and legible medical records, if applicable. [as further specified by the RC*]

5. Professionalism
Residents must demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. Residents are expected to demonstrate:

  • compassion, integrity, and respect for others;
  • responsiveness to patient needs that supersedes self-interest;
  • respect for patient privacy and autonomy;
  • accountability to patients, society and the profession; and,
  • sensitivity and responsiveness to a diverse patient population, including but not limited to diversity in gender, age, culture, race, religion, disabilities, and sexual
  • orientation. [as further specified by the RC*]

6. Systems-based Practice
Residents must demonstrate an awareness of and responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care, as well as the ability to call effectively on other resources in the system to provide optimal health care. Residents are expected to:

  • work effectively in various health care delivery settings and systems relevant to their clinical specialty;
  • coordinate patient care within the health care system relevant to their clinical specialty;
  • incorporate considerations of cost awareness and risk-benefit analysis in patient and/or population-based care as appropriate;
  • advocate for quality patient care and optimal patient care systems;
  • to work in inter-professional teams to enhance patient safety and improve patient care quality; and
  • participate in identifying system errors and implementing potential systems solutions. [as further specified by the RC*]

From Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education,
http://www.acgme.org/outcome/comp/GeneralCompetenciesStandards21307.pdf
Accessed October 29, 2011.

The Joint Commission

"Standards in the "Medical Staff" chapter require that the six general competencies adopted by the American Board of Medical Specialties and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education be addressed in the credentialing process, including interpersonal and communication skills and professionalism, all of which are incompatible with intimidating and disruptive behavior."

From The Joint Commission, Leadership in Healthcare Organizations, A Guide To Joint Commission Leadership Standards, Winter 2009, (http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/18/WP_Leadership_Standards.pdf), Accessed August 30, 2011.

National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME)

"The (Assessment of Professional Behaviors) APB Program supports continuous learning among residents, fellows, and faculty around communication and interpersonal skills, professionalism, and practice-based learning and improvement. Through multisource feedback, physicians at all levels of training and practice can gain broad perspective on behaviors observed by their colleagues. By bringing a standardized approach to assessment of professional behaviors, the program also helps departments and institutions strengthen training and mentoring.

From National Board of Medical Examiners, Assessment of Professional Behaviors Program, (http://www.nbme.org/schools/apb/index.html), Revised August 22, 2011, Accessed August 30, 2011.

United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)

"USMLE governance will consider changes to the examination sequence in the context of competencies that have become increasingly prevalent in recent years as a means of organizing medical education and assessment. One of the most commonly used competency frameworks was developed collaboratively by the ACGME and the ABMS. This framework identifies six competencies: medical knowledge, patient care, communication and interpersonal skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice."

From United States Medical Licensing Examination, Questions About the Comprehensive Review of USMLE, Revised December 2009, (http://www.usmle.org/general_information/FAQs/FAQs-CRU.html), Accessed August 30, 2011.